The Government Accountability Office (GAO) found from
1998 to 2009, women surpassed men in their likelihood of working for an
employer that offered a pension plan, largely because the proportion of men
covered by a plan declined. As employers have continued to terminate their
defined benefit (DB) plans and have switched to defined contribution (DC)
plans, the number of women who worked for employers that offered a DC plan
Correspondingly, women’s participation rates in DC
plans rose slightly over this same period, while men’s fell, narrowing the participation difference between genders to one percentage point.
However, women contributed to their DC plans at
lower levels than men. They also continued to have less retirement income on
average and live in higher rates of poverty than men in their age group.
The composition of women’s income varied only
slightly, in part, because their main income sources—Social Security and DB
benefits—were shielded from fluctuations in the market. Women, especially
widows and those age 80 and older, depended on Social Security benefits for a
larger percentage of their income than men.
In 2010, 16% of women age 65 and over depended solely
on Social Security for income compared with 12% of men. At the same time, the
share of household income women received from earnings increased over the
period, but was consistently lower than for men. Moreover, women’s median
income was approximately 25% lower than men’s over the last decade, and in 2010, the
poverty rate for women in this age group was nearly two times higher than for men.