SURVEY SAYS: What's On Your Summer Reading List?

July 21, 2008 ( - Tis the season where longer days, warmer weather, vacations (yours or that of the folks you work with), and television shows that are not really "new to you" anymore (even if they were worth watching in the first place) tend to give us time to pick up a good book.

Last week, I asked readers what was on their summer reading list – and if they had a recommendation for the rest of us.

Far and away, the most cited book on readers’ lists was Fearless Fourteen by Janet Evanovich.   In fact it was cited more than twice as often as any other item.   One reader explained, “If you’ve never read any of the “Number” Evanovich books, I envy you because you have something to look forward to, while I can only wait two years for the next one. They are laugh out loud, laugh till you cry, and cry when the book is done.”  

Others on the frequently cited list were:

My Sister’s Keeper

The Other Boleyn Girl

Pillars of the Earth

The Secret

The Shack

Team of Rivals (as one reader said, “Finally!!!!”)

Three Cups of Tea

Winter Study

Breaking Dawn (though it isn’t out until next month)

Not that it was all about light summer reading, of course – not with out audience.   One reader said they were focused on “SEC rules and regulations”, another the Series 65 study materials, and one was pouring over “four books, each the size of the yellow pages, of study material for a professional certification test.” 

One reader had the temerity to suggest, Be sure to read NewsDash once you’re back from vacation .   (Let it go!   while on vacation).”

“Gosh, do other people really read for pleasure?” asked one reader.  “The way all the people around me talk about nothing but the latest rubbish on TV, I honestly thought I was the only one that always has a book going! Are there really others out there???”

But this week’s Editor’s Choice goes to the reader who said that when it came to picking out the right books, one reader cautioned that “It has to be paperback and “summer proof” — chlorine-, sand-, sunscreen-, and wet- child and dog-proof!!!

As for the rest of the list, that’s on the next page….

1421: The Year China Discovered America by Gavin Menzies

1776 (by David McCullough)

3rd Degree

A Pirate Looks at Fifty by Jimmy Buffett

A Stillness at Appomatox, a Civil War history trilogy by Bruce Catton.

America, The Last Best Hope Vol I & II, by William Bennett

And Then We Came to The End

Another Clive Cussler book

any "smut" with no thought required

Anything by Lee Child, James Patterson or Stuart Woods

Asimov's The Robot Series

Ask and It Is Given by Esther and Jerry Hicks

Atlas Shrugged, Ayn Rand

Been Down So Long, Seems Like Up to Me - Richard Farina (Current Read)

Big Russ by Tim Russert

Break no Bones

Breaking Dawn which comes out August 2 - love them!!

Catcher in the Rye

Chris Coste - The 33 Year Old Rookie

Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War: Tony Horwitz

Da Vinci Code

Daddy's Girl, Lisa Scottoline

David Maraniss' "Rome 1960"

Duma Key by Stephen King

Eat to Live

Emma by Jane Austen

empire falls by richard russo

Escape By Carolyn Jessop

Extraordinary Circumstances: The Journey of a Corporate Whistleblower

Four books, each the size of the yellow pages, of study material for a professional certification test.

Friday Night Knitting Club

Garrison Keillor's "Platoon"

Gone, But Not Forgotten by Phillip Margolin

Harlan Coben "Hold Tight"

Harry Potter series of books

Heaven and Hell, My Life in the Eagles

Iran Awakening

Kite Runner

Lean, Mean, Thirteen


Marley and Me

Married Lovers by Jackie Collins

Mission Song

Motorcylce Safety Manual

My Early Life by Winston Churchill

Natural Cures They don't want you to know about

Nature Girl by Carl Hiaasen

NCLEX exam review books.

Nineteen Minutes by Jodi Picoulet


Odd Hours

Powerlines by Steve Cone.

Predictably Irrational (by Dan Ariely)

Pride and Prejudice

Richistan:A Journey Through the American Wealth Boom and the Lives of the New Rich


SEC Rules & Regulations

Secret Service-Hidden Systems that Deliver Unforgettable Custome Service - by John R. Dijulius, III

Series 65 study materials

Smila's Sense of Snow

Snow in August

sons and brothers

Spiderwick Chronicles

Such a Pretty Fat or Why Pie is not the Answer

Suite Francais

Ted Dekker's Circle Trilogy - Black, Red, and White

The Book Thief by Markus Zusak

The Last Lecture

The Oil & The Glory by Steve LeVine

The Passing of the Armies, An Account of the Final Campaign of the Army of the Potomac by Joshua Chamberlain

The Prince of ProvidenceCianci, America's Most Notorious Mayor

The Prosecution of George W Bush for Murder

The Race by Richard North Patterson,

The Red Tent

The Secret Between Us by Barbara Delinsky

The Whole Truth - Baldacci

The World is Flat - Thomas Friedman

The Yiddish Policemen's Union by Michael Chabon

Whatever my therapist recommends next

While America Aged

Winter Study by Nevada Barr

Winter Study by Nevada Barr

Work required reading--and plenty of it!

World Without End, by Ken Follett

Here's list of "other" list selections provided by readers (beyond their top choice):

A Land so strange - story of Cabeza de Vaca's journey across the continent in the 1500s

A Random Walk Down Wall Street (by Burton Malkiel)

Ah, nothing conjures up images of summer reading like a good romp through early 19th century England - I plan to re-read the works of Jane Austen, beginning with my favorite book of all time, "Pride and Prejudice."

America The Last Best Hope by Bill Bennett, Vol 1 & 2.

America, America - Ethan Canin   Child 44 - Tom Rob Smith   Mudbound - Hillary Jordan

Angela's Ashes, Jane Eyre, a book on pregnancy, maybe some John Sanford

Any Cormac McCarthy

Any new audio books.   Always have one book I am physically reading and one I listen to on my daily commute.   Started that a couple years ago and really enjoy the contrast between how one reads and forms voices and characters in the mind, versus someone else doing that for you.   This is especially true in the audio versions of the Harry Potter series.   Jim Dale is quite amazing.

Any type of mystery, police procedural, horror.....In other words, I'll read and re-read just about anything.

Anything by James Patterson

anything by James Patterson or Janet Evanovich

anything by John Sanford, Phillip Margolin, Nancy Taylor Rosenberg, Sue Grafton

Anything else that is fun and includes a character with a more exciting life than my own and has a good narrator.    Yep anything I can download will get my attention.

Anything escapism. I especially like to read books written by Robert Parker.

Audition - Barbara Walters   Sunday at Tiffany's - James Patterson

Beach Road, The Choice

Careless in Red by Elizabeth George

Carrying the Fire, Michael Collons (Gemini 10 & Apollo 11)   Common Sense on Mutual Funds, John C Bogle

Catherine Coulter Tailspin

Chick-lit - too many titles to name

Crazies to the Left of Me.   Wimps to the Right..   Most anything by James Patterson (big time page turners).

Culture Warrier, by Bill O'Reilly   Stay Mad for Life, by Jim Cramer

Don Quixote, P. G. Wodehouse's Jeeves short stories,

Duma Key (finished it), The Heroin Diaries,

Expanding the Circle of Love, by the Dalai Lama.

Fearless Fourteen by Janet Evanovich

FINRA Rules & Regulations

First two books of Tad Williams' "Shadowmarch" trilogy (only two published at this time)   "The Black Death: A Personal History" by John Hatcher

Fooled by Randomness: Nassim Nicholas Taleb   Suffer the Little Children: Donna Leon   Aginst the Day: Thomas Pynchon   The Messenger; Daniel Wilson

Getting caught up on the rest of Dean Koontz' Odd Thomas series

Glass Houses by Rachel Caine   Are You There Vodka? It's me, Chelsea by Chelsea Handler   The Physics of the Buffyverse by Jennifer Ouellette

God is in My Corner by George Foreman

Harlequin Romances

I just read "The Appeal" by Grisham, but would not recommend it.   I felt like I was reading the same bias I get out of CNN or FOX.   The poor trial attorneys are going to lose their millions while Corporate raiders get away with murder and the fleeced hicks from the South are to blame for being stupid enough to allow it to happen with their vote.

I'm a huge mystery fan. I read approximately 250+ books a year (and yes, in true plan sponsor fashion, I keep detailed records of my reading lists). This summer's reading list has included authors Lee Child, Janet Evanovich, Robert Crais, John Sanford, Deborah Crombie, Thomas Perry, Robert Parker .. and I could go on and on.

I'm looking for suggestions.

I'm probably the last one but the latest Harry Potter book

immoral, intent to kill, final harry potter book

I've already finished "I am Legend" and after my current book I'm going to work on "Summa Theologica".   Aren't you glad you asked?

Ive been finishing up The Witching Hour for the last two months, but I fall asleep after just reading about two pages.

James Patterson's new one which should be out soon if not already.

James Patterson's novels.

Janet Evanovich

Just finished the new Jack Reacher story by Lee Child, next will be a Clive Cussler book and The Last Lecture by Randy Pausch

Lewis Black's " Me of Little Faith"

Love the One You're With   Babyproof   Age of Turbulence   Weather (an intro book to meteorology)   whatever reading is on the EA-2A exam syllabus   I Thought There'd Be Cake

Making Money by Terry Pratchett

More Clive Cussler books - I never read anything he wrote until his one of his newest books (The Chase, I believe that involves salvaging a locomotive from a lake in Montana).   I just finished the Treasure of Khan and will need to visit the library to get another.

Mostly historical romance novels -- I seem to be addicted to junky novels

Next will be Asimov's The Foundation Series

Nora Roberts and Barbara Delansky's newest.

Not sure.

One for the Road

Paying for College without going broke - more a necessity than a choice book to read.

Silver Swan, Wild Justice, Killer View, Hit & Run, Hot Mahogany

Speedbumps by Teri Garr

Step on a Crack   - James Patterson     Excavation

Step on a Crack, James Patterson   Lean Mean Thirteen, Janet Evanovich

Tell me where it hurts   Nightmare Academy

The Bible

The Chronicles of Narnia

The Goal by Eliyahu M. Goldratt (it's for a college course I'm taking, but it's very interesting)

The God Delusion   The Audacity of Hope

The Historian

The Historian   Whatever's new by James Patterson and Dean Koontz   11 Medical RFP responses and 8 Dental RFP responses :o)

The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy series by Douglas Adams.

The Host by Stephenie Meyer -- currently reading until "Breaking Dawn" comes out   "Brisinger" by Christopher Paolini (release date: 9/20/08)   "Devil Bones" by Kathy Reichs (release date: 8/26/08) or anything else by Kathy Reichs   Anything by Kay Hooper

The Hunchback of Notre Dame

The innocent Man   The Name of The Rose

The Kite Runner

The Law of Attraction,   The Amazing Power of Deliberate Intent, The Astonishing Power of Emotions -- all 3 by Esther and Jerry Hicks; plus Seth Speaks by the late Jane Roberts, Notes from The Universe by Mike Dooley, The Power of Intention by Wayne W. Dyer, Fearless Loving by Rhonda Britten, If It Hurts, It Isn't Love: And 365 Other Principles to Heal and Transform Your Relationships by Chuck Spezzano Ph.D. and Robert Holden, and Around Her Finger.

The Navigator (Clive Cussler)   Wish You Well    Color of Water

The sequel to "Pillars of the Earth" and the next Dean K book in the Odd Thomas series.

The Story of Edgar Sawtelle - great book, a must read, but definitely not a "happy" book

The Sum of Our Days by Isabel Allende   Edgar Sawtelle by by David Wroblewski

The Sun Also Rises by Hemmingway - my gosh is this one taking a long time to read.   Two other books by Chabon I was given after I read The Yiddish Policemen's Union

The Tender Bar

The Terrorist Next Door

The Vegan Diet, The Chamber, Lord of the Rings the Two Towers, Food Revolution, Healthy at 100

The Womens Murder Club Series (Books 1-7, of which I am on the 3rd) by James Patterson

Thou Shall Prosper

Three Cups of Tea, Reading Lolita in Tehran, Love Walked In, Duma Key

Trading Up - Michael Silverstein and Neil Fiske    Name of the Rose - Umberto Eco   I will also probably read the Barbie Mariposa book several times since this is my daughter's new favorite

Wisdom of our Fathers - Russert   Cranford - Eliz. Gaskell   Villette - Bronte

Wisdom of our Fathers by Tim Russert   Fearless Fourteen: A Stephanie Plum Novel by Janet Evanovich   To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee (I try to re-read this every several years)

World Without End

And here, of course, are the recommendations beyond their personal reading lists...

  • "Sail" by James Patterson was a little disappointing in my opinion.
  • * "Is He Mr. Right? Everything You Need to Know BEFORE You Commit" -- Targeted at straight women, but really, anyone could benefit from knowing what a relationship needs to be sustainable (she argues that you need positive chemistry on five facets: comfort, safety, fun, passion, and mutual respect).   * "Pest Control" by Bill Fitzhugh -- Laugh-out-loud funny, and one of my favorite books. A NYC exterminator is mistaken for a professional assassin; hijinks ensue. Fitzhugh's other books are good, too.
  • 1...Anything by Lisa Scottoline   2.... Be sure to read NewsDash once you're back from vacation .   (Let it go!   while on vacation)
  • 1776 by David McCollough
  • 3 Night in August by Buzz Bissinger.     If anyone out there loves the game of baseball like I do - the "real" game (the strategy, the intense thinking, the what-ifs on every at bat), this book is awesome.   The whole book is on one crucial series between the rival St Louis Cardinals and Chicago Cubs from Tony LaRussa's head.
  • Anything by Carl Hiaasen. He's is a hoot.
  • Anything by Evanovich is just a scream--very funny depiction of life in "The Burg" of New Jersey, great cast of wacky characters that no one seems to think is wacky.   Patterson, Michael Connelly, Sue Grafton and Nevada Barr are all great, entertaining, and fast reads.
  • Anything by Harlen Coben
  • Anything by Haruki Murakami   Anything by Henning Mankell   Gravity's Rainbow: Thomas Pynchon (you may not finish until Christmas)
  • Anything by James Patterson
  • Anything in the Stephanie Plum series by Janet Evanovich.
  • Anything that is NOT work-related, for crying out loud!   For a true break from the day-to-day crazies, go back and read the classics.   Or get lost in the fabulous Harry Potter series - it's not just for kids.
  • Anything that is written or co-written by James Patterson - I especially enjoy the Alex Cross and Women's Murder Club series.
  • Asimov's The Robot Series   Asimov's The Foundation Series   Lord Of The Rings Triliogy   Kevin Anderson's Saga Of The Seven Suns
  • Big Russ I had bought it for my husband for Father's Day.   We grew up in Buffalo, New York & it was like going home to anyone raised in Buffalo.   It was a wonderful book not only about the great things in Buffalo but about the importance of family no matter what you do in life - Family First.
  • Cell by Stephen King   1492 A History of America before Columbus - EXCELLENT
  • Change of Heart by Jodi Piccoult   Prodigal Summer by Barbara Kingsolver (not a new book but I finally go to it recently)
  • Churchill's book My Early Life is delightful. He's a wonderful writer and his life was very interesting, but so is his view of his times. You wouldn't normally think of this as a summer read, but it is no struggle to pick this up every evening.
  • Crashing Through by Robert Kurson -- this nonfiction book is about a man (Mike May) blinded as a child who regained his sight (through a surgical procedure) in his late 40s/early 50s.   It's very well written and takes the reader through his experiences of growing up blind (having to vacuum, learning to ride a bike) through his college years and into his adult life as a husband, father, inventor, downhill ski racer.   It's hard not to use these words -- but the book is very insightful and eye opening.   By the way, I listened to the book while commuting -- listening seemed appropriate given the subject matter.   Also, listen/read the interview at the end between the author and Mike May, the subject of the book.
  • David Benioff's " City of Thieves"     Jeff Shaara's "The Steel Wave" ( part of a trilogy) but read his book "The Rising Tide" first.
  • Dead Time, Playing for Pizza, The Appeal,
  • Duma Key was awesome, the master of Horror did a much better job on this one than the last couple.
  • Follett's other book, The Pillars of the Earth was also good.   Both books are quite long, about 1,000 pages, which should keep you occupied for some time.
  • I do not watch TV, I read so I have a lot of recommendations:   The Law of Attraction,   Ask and It Is Given, The Amazing Power of Deliberate Intent, The Astonishing Power of Emotions -- all 3 by Esther and Jerry Hicks; plus Seth Speaks by the late Jane Roberts, Notes from The Universe by Mike Dooley, The Power of Intention by Wayne W. Dyer, The Secret, What the Bleep Do We Know!?: Discovering the Endless Possibilities for Altering Your Everyday Reality by William Arntz, Chasse, and Mark Vicente, Fearless Loving by Rhonda Britten, If It Hurts, It Isn't Love: And 365 Other Principles to Heal and Transform Your Relationships by Chuck Spezzano Ph.D. and Robert Holden, and Around Her Finger.   Also, any books by Mercedes Lackey, especially the Valdemar Series, JD Robb books, and W.E.B. Griffin.
  • I highly recommend The Book Thief.   It is unlike any book I have ever read.
  • I just completed reading "The Shack".   It is a Christian novel that has spent weeks on the NY Times best seller list.   It is a compelling book; well worth the price and the time spent reading it.
  • I just finished "Quickie" by James Patterson. I read it in two days. I also read "Betrayal" by John Lescroart. I've read all his books, he is a terrific storyteller. Some of my favorite authors write suspense and legal thrillers; Steve Martini, Patricia Cornwall, Perri O'Shaunassay.   These authors continue to tell the story of   the same characters in
  • I just finished McCullough's biography of John Adams (the one the HBO series was based on).   It's fascinating.   I'd also recommend Walter Isaacson's biography of Benjamin Franklin.   Comparing the treatment of common events from each one's opposing point of view is very compelling.
  • I recently finished both "Duma Key" and "Cell" by Stephen King.   Both are great reads that kept me very interested and I would recommend both to anyone who likes to get lost in a book.   You don't have to like "horror" books per se to enjoy most of King's material.   He is an excellent story teller.
  • I would recommend the The Womens Murder Club Series by James Patterson
  • Ice Trap, Kitty Sewell - excellent psychological suspense story.   A real page turner!
  • If you want to make doing business an unforgettable experience for your clients as well as for your employees, you must read:     True North by Bill George, and Built to Serve by Dan J. Sanders.     They both expouse a philosophy that can't be denied.
  • I'm reading a couple of books, but nothing that blows my skirt up.   So I'll give you a couple of my all-time favorites:   Poisonwood Bible by Barbara Kingsolver and Life of PI by Yann Martel.   Give me some good ones too, please!
  • Innocent by Harlan Corbin
  • Interred With Their Bones by Jennifer Lee Carrell
  • John Sandford's Prey series   John Patterson's Alex Cross and Women's Murder Club series   J. D. Robb's In Death series   John Saul   Jackie Collins (great for trashy reading) LOL
  • John Sanford's Prey series is amazing.
  • Mix it up!   Staying with one author is too easy.   Try to mix in a classic now and then to keep your brain challenged.
  • My favorite book of all time is Carolina Kane, a romance mystery. I'm probably a little biased about it, though, since I'm the author. While not a commercial success, everyone who's read it has thoroughly enjoyed it and is expectantly awaiting the sequel.
  • My top pick above - easy read, keeps you guessing, really draws you in!
  • Nineteen Minutes is a book that I would recommend for anyone with teenage children or younger.   It is fictional, but has a strong relation to current teen society and school shootings. The book was published just prior to the VA Tech shootings, but it was amazing how closely the book matched the occurances of that day.   Reading the book made me sit down with my teenage son and ask very pointed questions about bullying in school and what he sees going on in middle school and high school.   I would like to see this be mandatory reading on every middle school or high school reading list.   It really made me sad to think that bullying is such a part of every school and starts very young.        Sorry, not a very light reading for summer, but a book I couldn't put down.
  • One for the Road and China Road are really great about the exploration of Austraila and China through the eyes of an outsider.   Excellent reads with great humor.
  • Ordering Your Private World   Lion Taming: The Courage to Deal with Difficult People Including Yourself
  • P. G. Wodehouse's Jeeves short stories and novels because they are light and frothy
  • Same Kind of Different As Me, by Ron Hall and Denver Moore - can't put it down     Twelve Mighty Orphans by Jim Dent, sports book that everyone can love
  • See above - all of those authors are terrific.
  • See above!
  • So many to chose from   ...    so little time   ...     And so hard to chose.   If you haven't had the chance to read Ken Follett's "Pillars of the Earth" and/or it's sequel "World Without End" I think they are worth considering for summer reading.   Also any of C.S. Forester's "Horatio Hornblower" series, any of the Brother Cadfael mysteries by Ellis Peters (although I think reading them in order adds to the overall experience), and just about any of Sharon Kay Penman's novel's or mysteries ("When Christ and His Saints Slept," "Time and Chance," The Sunne in Splendour" among others) .     For those of a more serious mind:   Joseph Ellis' "American Creation" or "American Sphinx" (I happen to have a 'thing' about the history and personal lives of Thomas Jefferson and his peers), or "His Excellency: George Washington."   Any of David McCullough's excellent histories or biographies.       And (finally) for someone who really wants to bury themselves in a series of superb historical fiction books - Colleen McCullough's First Man in Rome (or now re-named the "Masters of Rome") series - - six novels of significant length - - but worth every minute.     (Seems I have a author's name association thing going on as I re-read what I've said.)
  • Steinbeck is always good in the summer, especially since most of his stories take place in warm locations.
  • stop watching so much television, come home from work and have a drink but no more than 2, while enjoying some of your favorite cheese and crackers and reading an interesting book, best of all is if it is done outdoors during the few hours of twilight!   You will enjoy the world more as well as your sourroundings as well as be more at peace with yourself and others.     alternate this twilight activity with prisk walks and your summer will be a better memory in your mind and body.
  • The Camel Club series by David Baldacci
  • The classics are worth the effort.
  • The Eyre Affair by Jasper Fford was interesting.   It is about current people who save old manuscripts of classic works.
  • The Future for Investors, Jeremy Siegel   Stocks for the Long Run, Jeremy Siegel   My Grandfathers Son, Clarence Thomas
  • The Good Earth - Pearl Buck   Age of Innocence - Edith Wharton   Brave New World - Aldous Huxley
  • The Harry Potter series.   I know it sounds cheesy but they are wonderful to read.     The Outlander series by Diana Gabaldon.   Little bit of historical fiction meets sci-fi meets love story.   I think most people will either like or dislike this series.
  • The High Price of Materialism by Tim Kasser. A very interesting read, and a pretty short book at that.
  • The Last Lecture - Randy Pausch   North and South - Eliz. Gaskell (NOT John Jakes)
  • The Looming Tower is the absolute best history of the developments in the Arab world leading up to September 11.
  • The Lost:   A Search for Six of Six Million
  • The Omnivore's Dilemma
  • The previous 13 novels in the Stephanie Plum series by Janet Evanovice.   They are crazy, fun and funny!   When the reivew states "Thrills, chills and possible incontinence may result.", you gotta know it will be a good read.             Water For Elephants   Kite Runner   A Thousand Splendid Suns
  • The Road   How Starbucks Saved My Life
  • The Shack
  • The Vegan Diet. You can save money: buying more vegetables and no meat, less trips to the doctor over your lifetime, going out can cost less. You can walk through life upright - no osteoporosis (or hardly any), and much MUCH lower risk of heart disease, diabetes, and the like.   The research and resources in this book are great (some of the writing isn't super amazing, but does a great job of informing).   Oh yeah - you live longer and better - less pain and disease.   Wouldn't that be great!
  • The Yiddish Policemen's Union has been called "the most realistic place I've ever read." Chabon's ability to make you feel like you are actually right next to the characters is amazing.     And if you have never read Mark Twain, do yourself a favor - go get "Tom Sawyer" right now, and to save yourself a trip you might as well pick up "The Adventures of Huckelberry Finn." "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court" is also wonderful. Barnes and Noble sells a version of each that has footnotes that update you on the political nature of the time and helps you understand how piercing Twain's writing was.
  • Tim Raford, "The Logic of Life." Very entertaining & mind-bending - he uses incentive-based economic analysis to look into things like street crime and marriage. Reminds me of Stephen Levitt's "Freakonomics" & Malcolm Gladwell's "Blink".
  • Tripwire & Echo Burning are two books you stay up all night to finish.
  • Water by Elephants is a MUST read
  • Water for Elephants - Sara Gruen.   An excellent book from my bookclub good for either men or women.   One of my favorite choices so far.
  • Water for Elephants   The Time Travelers Wife   The Memory Keeper's Daughter
  • Water for Elephants, any Nicholas Spark book, Dan Brown book.
  • Work in compliance if you enjoy/don't mind reading regulatory language.
  • Yes, Powerlines by Steve Cone.   Words that sell brands, Grip fans, & Sometimes change history.