According to ICI and SIFMA data, between 1989 and 2001, the overall household equity ownership rate jumped from 32% to 53% before falling back to 45% of households in 2008. However, over the same time period, the percentage of U.S. households owning equities inside retirement accounts at work rose from 12% to 31%, and 2008 data matches the 2001 peak.
A second way to consider how DC plans have affected equity ownership, ICI contends, is to consider differential ownership growth across age groups. Individuals born after 1940 were much more likely than those in older age cohorts to have had DC plan coverage while working because DC coverage expanded greatly during the 1980s, ICI pointed out, and data shows rapidly rising equity ownership rates for working individuals in this age group between 1989 and 2008. Meanwhile equity ownership was largely stable for the individuals born before 1940 who were much less likely to encounter a DC plan.
The report, “Equity and Bond Ownership in America. 2008,” indicates that even though overall household ownership rates for both equities and bonds grew dramatically between 1989 and 2001, then tapered off, the ownership rate in 2008 (47% or 54.5 million in first quarter) is still much higher than in 1989. ICI and SIFMA data shows that ownership of equities and bonds at any given level of household income is much higher for those offered a DC plan at work, which reinforces the influence of employer sponsorship of these plans.
Willingness to take risks has dropped among both younger and older households since 2001, which the report says appears to be related to the reappearance of stock-market turbulence in the bear market of 2000 – 2002 and appears to have had a negative impact on ownership rates during the past few years. However, the aging of baby boomers could be another factor, as the household survey found that older investors are much less likely to say they are willing to take above-average or substantial risks in order to get higher returns.
“Portfolio allocation and investment strategies over the life cycle are consistent with theoretical predictions and respondent self-reported savings goals and risk tolerance,” the report says. “Investor statements about their goals and willingness to take risk in order to get higher returns are supported by observations on how the equity and bond shares of portfolios vary across age groups.” As an example, the report says higher risk avoidance among the older investor group is indicated by higher shares of their portfolios invested in bonds.
The report suggests that household income is the dominant characteristic associated with equity and bond ownership rates among the working-age population. For example, while 86% of 50- to 64-year-old households with earnings of $100,000 or more are equity or bond owners only 10% of 50- to 64-year-old households earning less than $25,000 are equity or bond owners.
ICI and SIFMA said the explanation could be that lower-earning households generally exhibit less tendency to save for retirement because they may be more focused on near-term spending needs rather than retirement, or because they get a higher benefit replacement rate through Social Security, reducing the incentive for additional retirement savings.
Within other demographics, the report data shows ownership rates are generally higher for those with higher education (67% for those who had completed college vs. 30% for those with a high school education or less) and for non-Hispanic whites (55% vs 33% of other races). In addition, individuals married or living with a partner are much more likely to be equity and bond owners than single individuals (56% vs. 33%).
Investment goals and willingness to take risks among equity and bond owners also varies with age, since naturally as investors age, their focus shifts from building a retirement nest egg to managing the variability of investment returns and generating an income stream, according to the report. In 2004, the fraction of individuals reporting a willingness to take risk for higher returns was 24% in the under 35 group and 8% in the 65 or older group.
The report is here .