An Optimistic or Pessimistic Year for DB Funding?

Milliman forecasts both scenarios.

As other consultants have noted, Milliman’s Pension Funding Index (PFI), which analyzes the 100 largest U.S. corporate pension plans, finds defined benefit (DB) plan funded status came almost full-circle in 2016.

In December, the funded status for these pension plans improved by $13 billion due to robust investment returns of 1.17%, and the funded ratio increased from 80.3% to 81.0% to close out the year.

Milliman notes that overall, interest rate declines characterized 2016, with the end of August marking the lowest discount rate (at 3.32%) in the PFI’s 16-year history. Since that point and coincident with the conclusion of the U.S. presidential election, interest rates have steadily increased. 

So, looking forward, under an optimistic forecast with rising interest rates (reaching 4.55% by the end of 2017 and 5.15% by the end of 2018) and asset gains (11.2% annual returns), the funded ratio would climb to 92% by the end of 2017 and 105% by the end of 2018. However, under a pessimistic forecast with similar interest rate and asset movements (3.45% discount rate at the end of 2017 and 2.85% by the end of 2018 and 3.2% annual returns), the funded ratio would decline to 75% by the end of 2017 and 69% by the end of 2018.

“Going into 2017, rumors of potential multiple interest rate hikes by the Federal Reserve have plan sponsors and pension practitioners closely watching market activity. If interest rates continue to climb, the funded ratio could make some major gains,” says Zorast Wadia, co-author of the Milliman 100 Pension Funding Index.

To view the complete Pension Funding Index, go to